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Learning methods 101: Natural Methods (x-long post)
In recent weeks in this sub I've seen a lot of people discussing methods and methodologies, and, since I don't have anything better to do this evening (and I'm also a big fat whore for karma), I thought I would break down some of the formal methods that have been attested in the literature, and that I've encountered in my life as a "language professional." In the back of my mind I've had the idea of creating a whole series of posts on the basics of language learning (a not inconsiderable amount of which can also be found in the wiki), and if y'all find this 'test post' useful or informative, I'll expand the series and include other stuff. So, without further ado:
Natural methodsIn theory, what have been dubbed "natural methods" are based on how children acquire their first language. Children don't sit in a classroom and learn conjugation tables until they reach school age, and by that time (neurotypical) children will have been speaking for a good couple of years anyway. Therefore, the natural methods view instructed learning in a classroom or with a textbook as unnatural and ineffective.
In this post, I deal with six "natural" methods, which are:
- Total Immersion
- The Natural Method
- The Direct Method
- The Oral Method
- The Reading Method
- The Audiolingual Method
Total ImmersionIsn't this the gold standard for which we all strive? Isn't this the one true panacea for all our language learning woes? Won't it be best if we just put down the flashcard app, hop on a plane and soon we'll know el subjunctivo like the back of our hand? ...right?
Well, sometimes yes, sometimes no. 'Julie' was a British woman who married an Egyptian man and moved to Cairo when she was 21. She had never attended Arabic classes, and was unable to read and write in Arabic, but within two and a half years she was able to 'pass' as a native. 'Alberto' was a Costa Rican who, after living in Boston for one and a half years, was unable to communicate in anything more than basic pidginised English. Finally, 'Wes' a Japanese native who lived in Haiwaii, showed a remarkable lack of language ability over the three years when he was tested.
Why was Julie so successful and Alberto and Wes weren't? It seems that, in addition to round the clock exposure to the L2, a learner needs some kind of push for greater precision, and some kind of emphasis on correct form. Julie
kept a notebook in which she jotted down any words or expressions she could make sense of. [...] at the initial stage, of most use were formulaic 'chunks' which gave her a foothold into real communication. She also took note of corrections or rephrasings that her relatives offered her when communication broke down.Albert was described as being fairly isolated from the English-dominated local community, and even though Wes was described as being fairly well integrated with the local community, with no emphasis on form he was described as speaking fairly fluently, but very inaccurately.
And while Julie was an incredibly able speaker of Arabic, we have no idea about what her reading and writing skills were like since, outside of an academic context, learners simply don't get the exposure to written text, and the practice producing it, that true literacy requires.
Ioup, G., Boustagoui, E., Tigi, M., & Moselle, M. (1994) 'Reexamining the critical period hypothesis: a case of a successful adult SLA in a naturalistic environment', Studies in SLA, 16: 73- 98
Schmidt, R. (1983) 'Interaction, acculturation and the acquisition of communicative competence.' In Wolfson, N. & Judd, E. (eds.) Sociolinguistics and Second Language Acquisition, Rowley, Mass. Newbury House
TL;DR - Flying to Mexico is cool, but regulate and record the input you receive. Languages aren't absorbed by osmosis.
The Natural MethodWhat is now known as the natural method was based on the assumption that total immersion, without formal instruction, was what's best for language learners, and the theory was first formalised by a Frenchman, Lambert Sauveur, in 1874. In his book Causeries avec mes élèves (Conversations with my students) he describes the first lesson:
It is a conversation during two hours in the French language with twenty persons who know nothing of this language. After five minutes only, I am carrying on a dialogue with them, and this dialogue does not cease.Sauveur describes the principle underpinning his conversations as follows:
I raise quickly my finger before you, and show it to you. Do you not understand, whatever your language may be, that that means there is the finger? And if I point my extended forefinger towards the table, or the door, do you not understand that I say, There is the table; there is the door? And if, on showing you the finger, I say in my French language Voilà le doigt do you know understand that the French pronounce these words to indicate that thing?By extending this principle almost indefinitely, Sauveur believed that he could create conversations about the hear and now, at first with minimal input from the students, but eventually working towards full conversations with each other with minimal reliance on the teacher.
However in it's outright rejection of "traditional" classroom procedures like error correction, the natural method may have swung the pendulum too far in the direction of acquisition, rather than learning. After all a classroom is not a natural environment in which to acquire a language, and at best it provides a low-stress introduction to a language, whereafter more traditional methods might take over. But there is something to be said of the natural method. A number of researches have observed that the grammar of a first language emerges from the conversations a child has with its caregivers, and grammar is not a prerequisite to these conversations. It follows, therefore, that any method that emphasises conversations could provide a fertile ground from which L2 grammar could emerge, especially if such conversations were enhanced with explicit attention given to the formal features of the language.
Sauveur, L. (1874a) Causeries aves mes élèves. Boston: Schoenhof and Moeller
Sauveur, L. (1874b) Introduction to the Teaching of Living Languages Without Grammar or Dictionary. Boston: Shoenhof and Moeller
TL;DR - Maximise your use of spoken L2, but maintain some focus of form.
The Direct MethodThe main feature of the direct method is its lack of reliance on translation. Certain well known language learning systems, like Berlitz and Rosetta Stone are based on the direct method.
Maximilian Berlitz, in his 1911 First Book said that the direct method rests on two principles
- Direct association of Perception and Thought with the Foreign Speech and Sound
- Constant and exclusive use of the Foreign Language.
Roger Brown, a linguist specialising in first language acquisition, went to a Berlitz school in the 1970s, and describes his experience of learning there as follows:
My skilled and charming teacher began with the words "How do you do? That's the last English we will use." And it was. Working only in the new language can be a great strain on both teacher and student. Sometimes I think it really does lead to experiences akin to those of a preliterate child but often surely not. The insistence on avoiding the first language sometimes seems to lead to a great waste of time and to problems children [learning their L1] seem not to have. One morning my teacher tried to put across three verbs kimasu, yukimasu and kaerimasu, with the aid of paper and pencil drawings of pathways and persons and loci, and by much moving of herself and me - uncomprehendingly passive as a patient in a hospital. But I could not grasp the concepts. It feel Mr. Berlitz would have suffered no great dishonour if she had said to me that the concepts in question go by the names come, go, and return.Despite Roger's somewhat haphazard experience of learning without recourse to his L1, there is something to be said of maximising the use of the L2 within the learning process.
Berlitz, M. (1911/1917) Method for Teaching Modern Languages. First Book. (revised American edition). New York: Berlitz
Brown, R. (1973) A First Language: The Early Stages. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press
TL;DR - Use pictures of elephants on your Anki flashcards instead of the word "elephant", but don't have pictures of "fiscal drag" or "animosity".
The Oral MethodHarold Palmer moved to Belgium in 1902 to teach English in a Berlitz school. After a few years he had gained enough experience to establish his own school, using what he called the Palmer Method. Twenty years later, he published two books called The Oral Method of Teaching Languages and The Principles of Language Study.
Palmer believed that the key to learning another language was habit formation.
While at first blush it might seem like Palmer's method prioritises speaking, Palmer insisted on there being an 'incubation period' which simply consists of passively absorbing the target L2. If you've ever listened to a radio broadcast in Arabic, even though you speak no Arabic, you've strengthened Harold Palmer's ghost slightly.
Moving past this initial incubation phase would involve students responding non-verbally to certain commands, and in all reading and listening work that was done, it was crucial that the students understood what they were absorbing. Palmer presented meaning in one of four ways:
- Association with the thing itself
- Translation into the L1 (Palmer was not so anti-translation as Berlitz).
- By definition
- By contextualisation
A final tenet for Palmer was what he called 'gradation'. Palmer described gradation as:
passing from the known to the unknown by easy stages, each of which serves as a preparation for the next. In the ideally graded course, the student is caused to assimilate perfectly a relatively small but exceedingly important vocabulary; when perfectly assimilated, this nucleus will develop and grow in the manner of a snowball.Palmer, H. (1921a) The Oral Method of Teaching Languages. Cambridge: Heffer
Palmer, H. (1921b) The Principles of Language Study. London: Harrap
TL;DR - Listen even if you don't understand. Practice the basics until you can do it like a robot. Challenge yourself to just above your current level.
The Reading MethodNow there have been a lot of questions about learning through reading on Reddit in the past couple of days. And while this isn't quite an answer to those questions, it might be interesting nevertheless.
In 1929, Algernon Coleman wrote a report on the state of L2 teaching in the US, and he was unimpressed with what he saw. Most students were studying a foreign language for, at most, two years, and were not achieving any significant level of proficiency within that time. How, then, to get them to progress quickly? Get them to read. He proposed moving the goalposts of language learning to
[attain] the ability to read the foreign language with moderate ease and with enjoyment for recreative and for vocational purposes.The 'Coleman report' argued that, through reading, learners could acquire a critical mass of language knowledge that could be used as a springboard to active production if required later.
The texts used in the reading method were mostly graded readers, based on lists of frequent words, with the simplest tasks being ones including only the most common words in a language. Unknown words were either learned beforehand or explained in footnotes without a provided translation. The reading method, like the direct method, believed that reliance on a translation would get the wires crossed, so to speak.
Speaking activities were limited to answering questions about the text, or reading the text aloud, ostensibly to reinforce the connection between sounds and written words. Before the learners were introduced to any written text, they were introduced to the sound system of the language, to acclimate their "mind's ear" for when they would be reading silently (which was discouraged at first.)
The method also paid very little attention to grammar. Grammar points that were absolutely essential for the comprehension of a particular text were introduced, but the majority of grammar was left to the students to decipher on their own.
A distinction was also made between intensive reading and extensive reading. Intensive reading involved close reading of very short passages or individual sentences, extracting every detail, and extensive reading involved reading longer passages, inferring unknown vocabulary from context.
The emphasis placed on learning words would seem to conform to the notion that the more words you know, the more likely you are to understand a native text. However, it has not been conclusively proven that the more you read, the more vocabulary you know. Unless you consciously direct your attention to words you do not know, they will go in one eye and out the other. Extensive reading improves your ability to read (ie, speed and "getting the gist" of longer texts) but the connection between extensive reading and other areas of language proficiency is less clear cut. (Nakanishi 2015)
Coleman, A. (1929/1930) The Teaching of Modern Foreign Languages in the United States. New York: Macmillan
Nakanishi, T. (2015) 'A meta-analysis of extensive reading research' TESOL Quarterly, 49/1: 6-37
TL;DR - Read. Read widely, and read intensively, but pay attention to new words you come across in intensive reading. Extensive reading will make you a faster reader, but won't necessarily increase your vocabulary. Despite my own misgivings, there might be something to learning 2000 words from a list and jumping straight into a level-appropriate text.
The Audiolingual MethodThe reading method, mentioned above, ill-equipped students to be truly proficient in an L2, and during the second world war the United States could not afford to have linguists who didn't know what they were doing.
In stepped respected linguists like Charles Fries and Leonard Bloomfield to try and solve some of the problems.
The audiolingual method that they created was based on the contemporary psychological theory of behaviourism, which stated (to grossly oversimplify) that certain traits could be trained through repetition and reinforcement. When applied to language instruction, this (typically) involved students repeating the correct form of a sentence with one element changed each time until they had memorised it, in what was known as a pattern drill. The idea being that memorising it was enough to understand it and learn it, and allow for it's active use in the future.
The focus on endless pattern drills, and it's behaviourist underpinnings were questioned in the 1950s, and the method has largely fallen out of favour since then.
Fries, C. (1952) The Structure of English: An Introduction to the Construction of English Sentences. New York: Harcourt Brace.
TL;DR - Repeat sentence patterns changing one element each time. Repeat them until you want to cry, and then repeat them some more.
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